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Updated: Sep 10, 2019


Notice of the State Council on Printing and Distributing theOutline of the Construction of the Social Credit System (2014-2020)Guofa [2014] No. 21

The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, ministries and commissions under the State Council, and their directly affiliated institutions: The  "Social Credit System Construction Planning Outline (2014-2020)" is now printed and distributed to you, please implement it carefully.

                              State Council                            June 14, 2014

  (This item is released publicly)

 

Outline of the Construction of Social Credit System(2014-2020)

  The social credit system is an important part of the socialist market economic system and social governance system. It is based on laws, regulations, standards and contracts. It is based on a sound network of credit members and credit infrastructure that covers society members. It is supported by credit information compliance application and credit service system to establish a culture of integrity and promote the tradition of integrity. Virtue is an internal requirement, and the reward and punishment mechanism is based on trustworthiness and untrustworthiness, with the aim of improving the integrity and credit level of the whole society.  Accelerating the construction of the social credit system is an important basis for fully implementing the scientific development concept and building a socialist harmonious society. It is an important means to improve the socialist market economic system, strengthen and innovate social governance, and enhance the integrity of social members and create a good credit environment. It is of great significance to enhance the overall competitiveness of the country and promote social development and progress in civilization.  According to the party’s 18th National Congress, “Strengthening the integrity of government affairs, business integrity, social integrity and judicial public trust”, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed “establishing a sound social credit system, promoting integrity, and disciplining and losing trust”. "The establishment of a sound social credit system" proposed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Strengthening and Innovating Social Management, and the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China" (hereinafter referred to as the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" Outline) The overall requirements for “accelerating the construction of a social credit system” and the development of this plan. The planning period is from 2014 to 2020.  I. Overall thinking of the construction of social credit system  (I) Development status.
  The Party Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to the construction of a social credit system. The relevant regions, departments and units have explored and promoted, and the construction of the social credit system has made positive progress. The State Council established an inter-ministerial joint conference system for the construction of social credit system to promote the construction of the credit system, announced the implementation of the Regulations on the Administration of Credit Information, and introduced a number of regulations and standards for the construction of credit systems. The nationwide centralized and unified financial credit information database was established, and the construction of small and micro enterprises and rural credit systems was actively promoted; all departments promoted the disclosure of credit information, carried out industry credit evaluation, and implemented credit classification supervision; various industries actively carried out integrity education and integrity and self-discipline activities. All regions explored the establishment of a comprehensive credit information sharing platform to promote the integration of credit information of various departments and units in the region; the demand for credit service products in the society is increasing, and the scale of the credit service market is expanding.  Although China's social credit system has made certain progress, the contradiction between the level of economic development and the stage of social development is not matched, uncoordinated, and unsuitable. The main problems include: the credit system covering the whole society has not yet formed, the credit records of social members are seriously missing, the mechanism of trustworthiness incentives and disciplinary punishment is not perfect, the incentives for trustworthiness are insufficient, the cost of trustworthiness is low; the credit service market is underdeveloped, and the service system Immature, service behavior is not standardized, service organization's credibility is insufficient, credit information subject rights protection mechanism is lacking; social integrity awareness and credit level are low, the social atmosphere of fulfilling promises, honesty and trustworthiness has not yet formed, and serious production safety accidents, food and drug safety There have been incidents, such as commercial fraud, counterfeiting and selling, fraudulent taxation, false reporting, academic misconduct, etc., and there are still some gaps in the integrity of the government and the public trust.  (2) Situation and requirements.
  China is in the midst of a period of deepening the reform of the economic system and improving the socialist market economic system. The modern market economy is a credit economy. Establishing a sound social credit system is an important measure to rectify and standardize the market economic order, improve the market credit environment, reduce transaction costs, and prevent economic risks. It is to reduce the government's administrative intervention in the economy and improve the socialist market. Urgent requirements of the economic system.  China is in a period of strategic opportunities to accelerate the transformation of development mode and achieve scientific development. Accelerating the construction of the social credit system is an important prerequisite for promoting optimal allocation of resources, expanding domestic demand, and promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, and is an urgent requirement for improving the scientific development mechanism.  China is in the critical period of economic and social transformation. Interest subjects are more diversified, various social contradictions are prominent, and social organization forms and management methods are undergoing profound changes. Promoting the construction of a social credit system in an all-round way is an effective means to enhance social integrity, promote social mutual trust, and reduce social contradictions. It is an urgent requirement for strengthening and innovating social governance and building a socialist harmonious society.  China is in the process of expanding the open economy at a wider, broader and deeper level. Economic globalization has made China's openness to the outside world constantly improved, and economic and social exchanges with other countries and regions have become closer. Improving the social credit system is a necessary condition for deepening international cooperation and exchanges, establishing international brands and reputations, reducing external transaction costs, enhancing national soft power and international influence, and promoting the establishment of an objective, fair, reasonable and balanced international credit rating system. Adapt to the new situation of globalization and control the urgent requirements of the new globalization pattern.  (3) Guiding ideology and goal principles.
  To comprehensively promote the construction of a social credit system, we must adhere to the principles of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the "Three Represents", and the scientific development concept, in accordance with the spirit of the Eighteenth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan". Based on the sound credit laws and regulations and standards system, and the formation of a credit information system covering the whole society, the main content of promoting government integrity, business integrity, social integrity and judicial public trust is to promote the construction of honesty culture, establish trustworthiness incentives and disciplinary punishment. Focusing on the mechanism, with the support of promoting industry credit construction, local credit construction and credit service market development, with the aim of improving the integrity and credit level of the whole society and improving the economic and social operation environment, people-oriented, and widely formed in the society, trustworthy and glorious, and untrustworthy The shameful atmosphere makes honesty and trustworthiness a norm for the conscious behavior of the whole people.  The main goal of the construction of the social credit system is: by 2020, the basic laws, regulations and standards of social credit will be basically established. The credit information system covering the whole society based on the sharing of credit information resources will be basically completed, and the credit supervision system will be basically sound and credit. The service market system is relatively complete, and the mechanism of trustworthiness and disciplinary action is fully functional. Significant progress has been made in the construction of government integrity, business integrity, social integrity and judicial public trust, and market and social satisfaction has increased significantly. The sense of integrity in the whole society has generally increased, the credit environment for economic and social development has improved markedly, and the economic and social order has improved significantly.  The main principles for the construction of a social credit system are:  government promotion and social co-construction.Give full play to the role of government organization, guidance, promotion and demonstration. The government is responsible for formulating and implementing development plans, improving regulations and standards, and nurturing and supervising the credit service market. Focus on the role of market mechanisms, coordinate and optimize resource allocation, encourage and mobilize social forces, participate extensively, and jointly promote the formation of a joint social credit system.  Improve the legal system and standardize development. Gradually establish and improve credit laws and regulations system and credit standard system, strengthen credit information management, standardize the development of credit service system, and safeguard credit information security and information subject rights.  Overall planning, step by step implementation. In view of the long-term, systematic and complex construction of the social credit system, the top-level design is strengthened, based on the current, focusing on the long-term, overall planning, system planning, and planning and implementation in a step-by-step manner.  Key breakthroughs and enhanced applications. Select key areas and typical areas to carry out credit construction demonstrations. Actively promote the social application of credit products, promote the interconnection and sharing of credit information, improve the social credit reward and punishment linkage mechanism, and create a social credit environment of honesty, self-discipline, trustworthiness and mutual trust.  Second, promote the construction of credit in key areas  (1) Accelerate the construction of government integrity.
  Government integrity is the key to the construction of a social credit system. The integrity level of various government behavioral actors plays an important role in guiding and building the integrity of other social entities.  Adhere to administration according to law. The administration of law shall be carried out throughout the whole process of decision-making, implementation, supervision and service, comprehensively promote the openness of government affairs, and under the premise of protecting national information security, trade secrets and personal privacy, publicize the credit information grasped in administrative management according to law, and establish effective Information sharing mechanism. Effectively improve the efficiency of government work and service levels, and transform government functions. We will improve the power operation control and supervision system to ensure that decision-making power, executive power, and supervision power are mutually restricted and coordinated. Improve government decision-making mechanisms and procedures to improve decision-making transparency. Further promote the publicity and hearing system for major decision-making matters, broaden the channels for public participation in government decision-making, strengthen social supervision and restraint on power operation, enhance the government's credibility, and establish a government's open, fair, and honest image of integrity.  Give play to the demonstration role of government integrity construction.The people's governments at all levels must first strengthen their own integrity construction, and use the government's integrity to govern, and promote the establishment of the integrity of the whole society and the improvement of the level of integrity. In the areas of administrative licensing, government procurement, bidding, labor and employment, social security, scientific research management, cadre selection and management supervision, and application for government financial support, the company is the first to use credit information and credit products to cultivate the development of credit service market.  Accelerate the construction of the government's trustworthiness and promise mechanism. Strictly fulfill the government's commitment to the society, incorporate government performance and promise services into the government performance evaluation system, and evaluate the implementation of the economic and social development goals and the actual implementation of the people's work in the development planning and government work reports. The important content is to promote the establishment of a comprehensive system of government and administrative commitment assessment in all regions and departments. The people's governments at all levels must earnestly perform and honor the policy commitments and contracts signed according to law. It is necessary to actively create a fair competition, a unified and efficient market environment, and not to implement local protectionist measures, such as abusing administrative power to block the market, and harboring violations of laws and regulations and dishonesty in the administrative areas. It is necessary to support statistical departments to count statistics and statistics. Government borrowing must be in accordance with the law, appropriate scale, risk control, and transparent procedures. Government revenues and expenditures must strengthen budgetary constraints and increase transparency. Strengthen and improve the supervision mechanism of mass supervision and public opinion. Improve government integrity and accountability mechanisms. The people's governments at all levels must consciously accept the legal supervision of the people's congress at the same level and the democratic supervision of the CPPCC. Intensify supervision and auditing of administrative actions by departments such as supervision and auditing.  Strengthen the integrity management and education of civil servants. Establish civil servants' integrity files, and in accordance with the law, the civil servant's personal affairs report, integrity record, annual assessment results, relevant violations of law and discipline violations and other credit information are included in the archives, and the civil servant integrity record is an important basis for cadre assessment, appointment and reward and punishment. In-depth development of civil servants' integrity, law-abiding and moral education, strengthening legal knowledge and credit knowledge, compiling civil service integrity manuals, strengthening civil servants' legal and integrity awareness, and establishing a civil service team that is law-abiding and trustworthy, efficient and clean.  (2) Deeply promote the construction of business integrity.
  Improving the level of business integrity is the focus of the construction of the social credit system. It is the basic condition for effective maintenance of business relationships, effective reduction of business operation costs, and effective improvement of the business environment. It is the basis for the sustainable development of all types of business entities, as well as various types of economy. The basic guarantee for the efficient implementation of activities.  Credit construction in the production sector. Establish a safety production credit announcement system, improve the safety production commitment and safety production bad credit records and the disciplinary system for safe production and untrustworthy behavior. Focus on coal mines, non-coal mines, dangerous chemicals, fireworks and firecrackers, special equipment manufacturing enterprises, and civilian explosives production and sales enterprises and blasting enterprises or units, improve the safety production access and exit credit review mechanism, and promote enterprises to implement safe production. Subject responsibility. Focusing on food, medicine, consumer goods, agricultural products and agricultural inputs, we will strengthen the credit management of production and processing links of various production and operation entities, and establish a system for sharing product credit information in different places and between departments. Promote the establishment of a quality credit information system, accelerate the improvement of the 12365 product quality complaints reporting service platform, and establish a quality integrity report, blackmail disclosure, market ban and exit system.  Credit construction in the circulation field. Study and formulate the collection and sharing system of corporate credit information in the field of commerce and trade circulation, and improve the basic rules and indicator system for credit evaluation of commercial and trade circulation enterprises. Promote the credit construction of wholesale and retail, trade logistics, accommodation and catering and resident service industries, and carry out enterprise credit classification management. Improve the credit cooperation model between retailers and suppliers. Strengthen anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition law enforcement, increase the investigation and punishment of market confusion, false propaganda, commercial fraud, commercial slander, commercial bribery and other illegal acts, expose typical cases and major cases, increase the cost of corporate trustworthiness, and promote Integrity management and fair competition. Gradually establish a national commodity circulation traceability system based on the identification of commodity barcodes. Strengthen the construction of the inspection and quarantine quality credit system. Support credit financing for business services companies, develop commercial factoring, and regulate prepaid consumer behavior. Encourage enterprises to expand credit sales and promote personal credit consumption. We will promote the construction of foreign economic and trade credit, and further strengthen credit information management, credit risk monitoring and early warning, and enterprise credit rating management in areas such as foreign trade, foreign aid, and foreign investment cooperation. With the help of the electronic port management platform, we will establish and improve the credit evaluation system, credit classification management and joint supervision system for import and export enterprises.  Credit construction in the financial sector.Innovate financial credit products, improve financial services, safeguard the personal information security of financial consumers, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of financial consumers. Intensify the punishment of financial fraud, such as financial fraud, malicious escape of bank debts, insider trading, manufacturing and selling of fake policies, fraudulent claims, disclosure of false information, illegal fund-raising, evasion and fraud, and regulate the financial market order. Strengthen the construction of financial credit information infrastructure, further expand the coverage of credit records, and strengthen the financial industry's incentive role for the trustworthy and the binding role of the untrustworthy.  Credit construction in the tax field. Establish an inter-departmental credit information sharing mechanism. Conduct exchange, comparison and application of tax-related information such as taxpayer basic information, various transaction information, property preservation and transfer information, and tax records. Further improve the tax credit rating and release system, strengthen the credit classification management in the tax field, and give play to the reward and punishment of taxpayers. Establish a blacklist system for tax violations. Promote the linkage management of tax credits and other social credits, and improve taxpayer compliance with tax laws.  Credit construction in the price field. Guide enterprises and operators to strengthen price self-discipline, standardize and guide the price behavior of operators, implement the clearing price and fee publicity system of operators, and strive to implement “clear price”. Supervise operators to strengthen internal price management and establish a sound internal price management system based on operator conditions. Improve the operator's price integrity system, do a good job in information disclosure, and promote the implementation of reward and punishment systems. Strengthen price law enforcement inspection and anti-monopoly law enforcement, investigate and deal with price frustration behaviors such as price increase, price fraud, price monopoly, etc., publicly expose typical cases and standardize market price order.  Credit construction in the field of engineering construction.Promote the construction of the credit system for the construction industry market. Accelerate the construction of credit laws and regulations in the engineering construction market, and formulate credit standards for all parties and employees in the engineering construction market. Promote the project information disclosure and credit system construction in the field of engineering construction, rely on the government website, comprehensively set up project information and credit information public sharing column, focus on project construction project information and credit information, promote the construction of a nationwide comprehensive search platform, and realize the project construction project. A one-stop comprehensive search service for public sharing of information and credit information. In-depth development of engineering quality and integrity. Improve the market access and exit system for engineering construction, and increase the punishment for enterprises that have major engineering quality, safety responsibility accidents or other major acts of dishonesty and responsible employees. Establish an association management mechanism for the evaluation of credit evaluation results of enterprises and employees, approval of qualifications, registration of qualifications, and cancellation of qualifications. Establish a scientific and effective credit evaluation mechanism for employees in the construction field and a traceability system for breach of trust, and include dismantling, subcontracting, illegal subcontracting, arrears of construction funds and wages of migrant workers into the scope of accountability for breach of trust.  Credit construction in the field of government procurement. Strengthen government procurement credit management, strengthen joint punishment and protect the legitimate rights and interests of government procurement parties. Develop credit record standards for suppliers, review experts, government procurement agencies, and related practitioners. Establish a list of bad behavior records of government procurement suppliers according to law, and prohibit suppliers participating in government procurement activities for a certain period of time. Improve the access and exit mechanism of the government procurement market, make full use of the credit information provided by other departments such as industry and commerce, taxation, finance, procuratorial, etc., and strengthen the credit management of government procurement parties and related personnel. Accelerate the construction of a unified national government procurement management transaction system, improve the transparency of government procurement activities, and achieve unified release and sharing of credit information.  Credit construction in the field of bidding and tendering.We will expand the scope of sharing and sharing credit information for bidding and tendering, establish a credit evaluation index and evaluation standard system covering bidding and tendering, and improve the system of disclosure and sharing of credit information for bidding and tendering. Further implement the announcement system for the record of illegal activities in bidding and bidding, and promote the improvement of the reward and punishment linkage mechanism. Relying on the electronic bidding system and its public service platform, it realizes the interconnection, real-time exchange and integration of credit information such as bidding and contract fulfillment. Market participants are encouraged to use basic credit information and third-party credit evaluation results as an important basis for bidder qualification review, bid evaluation, calibration and contract signing.  Credit construction in the transportation sector. Form a transportation credit law system that combines departmental rules and regulations with local regulations and local government regulations. Improve credit assessment standards and implement classified assessment and supervision. For the different types of transportation in the transportation market such as roads, railways, waterways, civil aviation, and pipelines, we will formulate assessment indicators, strengthen the supervision and management of credit assessment, actively guide third-party institutions to participate in credit assessment, and gradually establish transportation management agencies and social credit evaluation agencies. Combined, a comprehensive assessment and evaluation system with supervision, appeal and review mechanisms. All kinds of traffic violations are included in the record of untrustworthiness. Encourage and support all units to prioritize transportation enterprises and employees with high credit rating in purchasing transportation services, bidding, and personnel recruitment. For untrustworthy enterprises and employees, it is necessary to strengthen supervision and punishment, and gradually establish a cross-regional and cross-industry credit reward and punishment linkage mechanism.  Credit construction in the field of e-commerce.Establish and improve the credit management and transaction credit evaluation system for e-commerce enterprises, and strengthen the quality supervision of e-commerce enterprises to develop and sell credit products. Promote the identity identification system of e-commerce entities and improve the real-name system of online stores. Strengthen the quality inspection of online shop products, and severely investigate and punish fraudulent acts such as counterfeiting and selling, pyramid schemes, false advertisements, shoddy goods, and service defaults in the e-commerce field. To crack down on internal and external collusion, falsification of traffic and business reputation, establish an industry-limited ban system for untrustworthy entities. Promote the exchange and sharing of e-commerce credit information and other relevant information in the society, and promote the credit evaluation of e-commerce and offline transactions. Improve the e-commerce credit service guarantee system, and promote the promotion and application of third-party credit services and products such as credit investigation, credit evaluation, credit guarantee, credit insurance, credit payment, and business account management in e-commerce. Conduct e-commerce website trusted authentication service, promote the application of website trusted identifiers, and provide means for e-commerce users to identify counterfeit and phishing websites.  Credit construction in the field of statistics. Carry out the corporate integrity statistics commitment activities, and create a good atmosphere of honest and glorious, unbelievable and false. Improve the statistical integrity evaluation standard system. Establish and improve the enterprise statistical integrity evaluation system and the integrity file of statistical practitioners. Strengthen law enforcement inspections, severely investigate and punish acts of fraud in the field of statistics, and establish a system for reporting and public exposure of statistical untrustworthiness. Increase the joint punishment of statistical untrustworthy enterprises. Incorporate the list of statistical untrustworthy enterprises and their illegal and illegal information into the credit information systems of the financial, industrial and commercial industries and departments, and directly link the statistical credit records with corporate financing, government subsidies, industrial and commercial registration, etc., and effectively strengthen the punishment for statistical untrustworthiness. Restricted.  Intermediary service industry credit construction. Establish and improve the credit record and disclosure system of intermediary service agencies and their employees, and serve as an important basis for the implementation of credit classification management by market administrative law enforcement departments. Focus on strengthening the credit classification management of notarization, lawyers, accounting, guarantees, forensics, inspection and testing, evaluation, certification, agency, brokerage, employment, consulting, and transaction. Establish a scientific and reasonable evaluation indicator system, evaluation system and working mechanism.  Credit construction in exhibitions and advertising.Promote the exhibition organizers to conduct honest exhibitions, practice the integrity service convention, establish credit file and information disclosure system for illegal and illegal units, and promote the application of credit services and products. Strengthen the integrity construction of the advertising industry, establish and improve the credit classification management system of the advertising industry, crack down on all kinds of false advertisements, highlight the responsibilities of the participants in the production and communication of advertisements, and improve the disciplinary mechanism of the main body of advertising activities and the serious mechanism of eliminating trust.  The construction of corporate credit management system. Carry out corporate commitment commitment activities in various industries, increase the demonstration of publicity enterprises and the exposure of typical cases of dishonesty, guide enterprises to enhance their sense of social responsibility, strengthen credit self-discipline in production, management, financial management and labor management, and improve the business credit environment. . Encourage enterprises to establish customer files, conduct customer credit evaluation, incorporate customer integrity transaction records into accounts receivable management, credit sales credit line measurement, establish a scientific enterprise credit management process, prevent credit risks, and enhance corporate comprehensive competitiveness. Strengthen the integrity of enterprises in the issuance of debts, loans, guarantees and other credit and debt credit transactions and production and operation activities in good faith. Encourage and support qualified companies to set up credit managers. Encourage enterprises to establish an internal staff integrity assessment and evaluation system. Strengthen the self-credit construction of water supply, power supply, heat supply, gas, telecommunications, railway, aviation and other enterprises related to the daily life of the people.  (3) Comprehensively promote the building of social integrity.
  Social integrity is the foundation of the construction of a social credit system. Only members of society can treat each other with sincerity and trust, and form a harmonious and friendly interpersonal relationship. Only then can we promote social civilization and progress, and achieve social harmony, stability and long-term stability.  Credit construction in the fields of medicine and health care.Strengthen the credit management of medical and health institutions and the construction of industry integrity. Establish the value concept of the great doctor and adhere to the practice of benevolence and benevolence. Cultivate honesty, honesty, honesty, honesty, integrity, medical insurance, honesty, rational use of drugs, reasonable treatment, reasonable fees and other credible medical service guidelines, comprehensive establishment of drug prices, medical service price disclosure system, the development of integrity hospitals, Integrity pharmacy creation activities, the establishment of medical institutions and licensed physicians, pharmacists, nurses and other medical personnel credit evaluation indicators standards, promote hospital evaluation evaluation and regular assessment of physicians, carry out comprehensive evaluation of medical staff medical ethics, disciplinary acceptance of bribery, excessive diagnosis and treatment of illegal and untrustworthy behavior Establish an honest medical service system. Accelerate the improvement of the credit system in the field of drug safety, and establish credit files for pharmaceutical R&D, production and distribution enterprises. Actively carry out the drug safety and integrity commitment activities with the theme of "Sincerity is the highest, quality is the winner", effectively improve the level of drug safety and credit supervision, severely crack down on counterfeiting and selling, and ensure the safe and effective use of drugs by the people. Strengthen the credit construction in the population and family planning field, and carry out the sharing of population and family planning credit information.  Credit construction in the field of social security. In the areas of disaster relief, relief, pension, social insurance, charity, lottery, etc., establish a comprehensive system of integrity, crack down on all kinds of fraudulent acts such as fraudulent donations and donations. Establish and improve the integrity system of applications, audits, and exits in the implementation of people's livelihood policies such as social assistance and affordable housing, strengthen the review of conditions for applying for relevant people's livelihood policies, and strengthen the supervision of dynamic management of social assistance and the use of affordable housing. Individuals who are untrustworthy and in violation of the rules are included in the credit blacklist. Establish a check-up information system for the economic status of households, establish and improve the identification mechanism for low-income families, and ensure fair, just and healthy operation of people's livelihood policies such as social assistance and affordable housing. Establish and improve the social insurance credit management system, strengthen the management of social insurance management, strengthen the labor security supervision and law enforcement in the field of social insurance, standardize the behavior of participating insurance contributions, and increase social insurance agreements for medical insurance designated hospitals, designated pharmacies, and industrial injury insurance agreements. The disciplinary efforts of the service agencies, their staff, and various types of insured persons in violation of regulations, fraud, and fraudulent protection, to prevent and combat various fraudulent behaviors. Further improve the social insurance fund management system, improve the transparency of fund collection, management, payment and other aspects, promote the construction of social insurance credit system, standardize the behavior of insurance contributions, and ensure the safe operation of social insurance funds.  Credit construction in the field of labor and employment.Further implement and improve the enterprise labor security and law-abiding integrity system, and formulate public disclosure measures for major labor security violations. Establish a public notice system for the employer's arrears of wages and violations, and improve the employer's labor security credit rating system. Standardize the employment behavior, strengthen the management of labor contract performance and arbitration, and promote enterprises to actively develop harmonious labor relations creation activities. Strengthen labor and social security supervision and law enforcement, and increase efforts to crack down on illegal activities. Strengthen the integrity construction of the human resources market, standardize the behavior of professional intermediaries, and crack down on various illegal and dishonest behaviors such as black intermediary and black employment.  Credit construction in education and scientific research. Strengthen the integrity education of teachers and researchers. Carry out the teacher's commitment to integrity, and consciously accept the supervision of the students, parents and the community. Give play to the influence of teachers' integrity and coaching. Strengthen the education of students' integrity, cultivate good habits of honesty and trustworthiness, and lay the foundation for improving the integrity of the whole nation. Explore the establishment of credit evaluation systems for educational institutions and their employees, teachers and students, scientific research institutions, and scientific and technological associations and researchers. Credit evaluation and examination enrollment, student status management, academic degree awards, research project projects, professional and technical job evaluation, Job hiring, selection and commendation, etc., and strive to solve problems such as academic fraud, plagiarism, academic misconduct, exam admission and cheating.  Credit construction in the fields of culture, sports and tourism. Relying on the national cultural market technology supervision and public service platform, establish and improve the credit information database of cultural enterprises, employees and cultural products in the fields of entertainment, performance, art and network culture; formulate cultural market integrity management measures according to law, and strengthen cultural market dynamics Supervision. Formulate the standards for the integrity of professional sports practitioners, establish a third-party evaluation system for the professional sports practitioners, professional sports clubs and intermediary enterprises, and promote the relevant credit information records and credit ratings in participating in or holding professional sports events, professional sports access, The transfer and other aspects are widely used. Formulate guidelines for the integrity of tourism practitioners, establish a feedback and disclosure system for tourism consumers, and establish a third-party evaluation system for credit ratings of travel agencies, tourist attractions and hotels.  Credit construction in the field of intellectual property.Establish and improve the credit management system for intellectual property rights, and introduce credit evaluation methods for intellectual property protection. Focus on cracking down on infringement of intellectual property rights and the production and sale of counterfeit and shoddy goods, including information on intellectual property infringements into untrustworthy records, strengthening joint disciplinary action against intellectual property rights infringement and other acts of piracy and infringement, and raising awareness of intellectual property protection in the whole society. Carry out credit construction of intellectual property service institutions, and explore the establishment of various types of intellectual property service standardization systems and integrity evaluation systems.  Credit construction in the field of environmental protection and energy conservation. Promote national environmental monitoring, information and statistical capacity building, strengthen the collection and collation of environmental credit data, achieve environmental protection work business collaboration and information sharing, and improve the environmental information disclosure catalog. Establish an environmental management and monitoring information disclosure system. We will improve the accountability mechanism for environmental impact assessment documents, establish an environmental protection archives database for EIA agencies and their employees, and evaluate experts, and strengthen the classification and supervision of credit assessment agencies, their employees, and assessment experts. Establish a system for enterprises to conduct self-monitoring of pollutants discharged and publish pollutant discharges and the occurrence and handling of environmental incidents. Establish a corporate environmental behavior credit evaluation system, publish evaluation results on a regular basis, and organize dynamic classification management, and encourage, warn or punish according to the credit rating of the enterprise. Improve the credit information sharing mechanism for corporate environmental behavior, and strengthen linkages with banks, securities, insurance, and business sectors. Strengthen national energy utilization data statistics, analysis and information reporting capacity building. Strengthen the assessment of the energy-saving target of key energy-using units, regularly publish the assessment results, and study and establish a credit evaluation mechanism for key energy-using units. Strengthen the credit rating and supervision of energy audits, energy efficiency assessment and review agencies and their practitioners. Research and carry out the credit evaluation work of energy-saving service companies, and gradually release the credit rating results to the whole society. Strengthen the credit assessment management of the employment status of the environmental assessment project review experts.  Social organization integrity construction. Relying on the information resource library of the legal entity, speed up the improvement of social organization registration management information. We will improve the information disclosure system of social organizations, guide social organizations to improve the openness and transparency of their operations, and regulate the behavior of social organizations to disclose information. Incorporate the content of integrity construction into the articles of association of various social organizations, strengthen the integrity and self-discipline of social organizations, and improve the credibility of social organizations. Give play to the role of industry associations (commercial associations) in the construction of industry credit, and strengthen the education and training of members' integrity.  Natural person credit construction.It highlights the basic role of natural person credit construction in the construction of social credit system, relies on the national population information resource database, establishes and improves the credit record of natural persons in economic and social activities, and realizes the full coverage of natural person credit records nationwide. Strengthen the construction of professional credit for key populations, and establish civil servants, legal representatives of enterprises, lawyers, accounting practitioners, certified public accountants, statistical practitioners, certified tax agents, auditors, appraisers, certification and inspection and testing practitioners, securities and futures practitioners, Credit records of senior executives, insurance brokers, medical personnel, teachers, scientific researchers, patent service practitioners, project managers, news media practitioners, tour guides, practicing veterinarians, etc. of listed companies, promote the use of professional credit reports, and guide the construction of professional ethics And behavioral norms.  Credit construction in the field of Internet applications and services. Vigorously promote the construction of network integrity, foster the concept of legally operating the network, use the network with integrity, gradually implement the real-name system of the network, improve the legal guarantee for the construction of network credit, and vigorously promote the construction of the network credit supervision mechanism. Establish a network credit evaluation system, conduct credit evaluations on the service operations of Internet companies, and online behaviors of Internet users, and record credit ratings. Establish network credit files covering Internet enterprises and Internet users, and actively promote the establishment of exchange and sharing mechanisms for online credit information and related credit information in other fields, and vigorously promote the promotion and application of online credit information in various fields of society. Establish a network credit blacklist system, blacklist enterprises and individuals that implement serious network dishonesty behaviors such as online fraud, rumors, and other people’s legitimate rights and interests, and impose online behavior restrictions, industry bans, etc. on blacklisted subjects. Measures, notify relevant departments and make public exposure.  (4) Vigorously promote the construction of judicial public trust.
  Judicial public trust is an important part of the construction of social credit system, a prerequisite for establishing judicial authority, and the bottom line of social fairness and justice.  Court public trust construction. Improve the level of informationization of judicial trials, and realize the inter-communication of trial information in the national four-level courts covering the whole process of trial work. Promote the disclosure of information on enforcement cases, improve the implementation of linkage mechanisms, and increase the rate of implementation of legal instruments in force. Play the role of trial function, encourage honest transactions, advocate mutual trust and cooperation, sanction commercial fraud and arbitrary breach of contract and other untrustworthy behaviors, and guide honesty and trustworthiness.  Prosecutorial public trust construction.Further deepen the openness of procuratorial affairs, innovate the means and means of publicizing procuratorial affairs, extensively listen to the opinions of the masses, and protect the people's right to know, participate, express and supervise the procuratorial work. We will continue to implement the “Sunshine Case”, strictly manage the system, strengthen internal and external supervision, and establish and improve special inspection, simultaneous supervision, and accountability mechanisms. Give full play to the role of the legal supervision function, increase the intensity of investigation and prevention of duty crimes, and promote the building of integrity. Improve the file search system for bribery crimes, standardize and strengthen the management of inquiry work, and establish a sound social linkage mechanism for the filing and application of bribery crime files.  Public trust construction in the field of public safety. Full implementation of "sunshine law enforcement", timely disclosure of law enforcement procedures, procedures and time limits, etc., should not be disclosed to the public for the progress of the case, but information that involves specific rights and obligations and needs specific object knowledge should be notified to specific targets, or A specific object provides a query service. Further strengthen the exchange and sharing of population information with information resources of various regions and departments, and improve the construction of national population information resources. Incorporate citizen traffic safety violations into the integrity file to promote awareness of traffic safety among members of the whole society. Regularly disclose the fire safety assessment results of high-risk units to the public and use them as an important reference for the unit's credit rating. Incorporate social security compliance with fire safety laws and regulations into integrity management, and strengthen the responsibility of fire safety personnel in social units.  Public administration of the judicial administrative system. Further improve the standardization and institutionalization of the management of prisons, drug rehabilitation sites and community correctional institutions, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of prisoners, drug abusers and community corrections personnel. Vigorously promote the disclosure of judicial administrative information, further standardize and innovate information management and disclosure methods such as lawyers, notarization, grassroots legal services, legal aid, judicial examinations, judicial appraisal, etc., and protect the people's right to know.  Judicial law enforcement and credit construction of employees. Establish credit files for public security, judicial administration and other staff at all levels, and incorporate bad records such as smuggling laws and inactions into archives according to laws and regulations, and serve as the basis for assessment, reward and punishment. Advance the practice of integrity and standardization of lawyers, notaries, grassroots legal service workers, legal aid personnel, and judicial appraisers. Establish a system of integrity commitments for judicial practitioners.  Improve the institutional basis for promoting judicial public trust.We will deepen the reform of the judicial system and working mechanism, promote the standardization of law enforcement, and strictly enforce the procedures. We must adhere to laws, violations, and equality before the law, and improve the scientific, institutionalized, and standardized levels of judicial work. Give full play to the supervisory role of the NPC, the CPPCC and the public to the judicial work, improve the mutual supervision and control mechanism between the judicial organs, strengthen the internal supervision of the judicial organs, and achieve supervision, promote fairness, promote justice, and promote public trust.  III. Strengthening the Education of Honesty and the Construction of Honesty Culture The construction of  honesty and honesty culture is an important way to lead the integrity and self-discipline of members of society and enhance the moral literacy of members of society. It is an important part of the construction of the socialist core value system.  (1) Popularizing integrity education.
  Taking the construction of the socialist core value system, cultivating and practicing the core values of socialism as the foundation, the integrity education runs through the whole process of civic moral construction and spiritual civilization creation. Promote the construction of civic morality, strengthen social morality, professional ethics, family virtues and personal moral education, inherit Chinese traditional virtues, carry forward the new era of the times, and form a good society in the whole society, "being honest and trustworthy, and seeing forgiveness and forgiveness" Fashion.  Further enrich the content of integrity education in all types of education and training. Vigorously carry out credit publicity and popularize education into institutions, enter enterprises, enter schools, enter communities, enter villages, and enter family activities.  We will build a good moral hall and advocate patriotic, professional, honest, friendly and other values and ethics. Conduct mass ethics appraisal activities, analyze and comment on the lack of credibility and non-credit, and guide people to be honest and trustworthy, and obey the ethics.  (2) Strengthening the construction of a culture of integrity.
  Promote a culture of integrity. Taking members of the society as the means, using honesty as a means of communication, and taking honesty education as the carrier, vigorously advocating honesty and ethics, promoting the traditional culture of the Chinese nation, which is positive, honest and trustworthy, and the contractual spirit of the modern market economy, forming a spirit of integrity and practice. Integrity of social trends.  Establish a good example of integrity.Give full play to the propaganda and guidance role of television, radio, newspapers, internet and other media, combine moral model selection and integrity creation activities in various industries, establish a model of social integrity, enable members of society to learn from role models, catch up with goals, and make honest and trustworthy become the whole society. Conscious pursuit.  In-depth development of the integrity theme activities. Step by step, focus on the organization of "integrity activities week", "quality month", "safe production month", "integrity business promotion month", "3·5" learning Lei Feng activity day, "3·15" international consumption The rights and interests protection day, "6·14" credit record care day, "12. 4" national legal publicity day and other public welfare activities, highlighting the theme of integrity, creating a harmonious and harmonious social atmosphere.  Vigorously carry out special governance of credit issues in key industry sectors. We will carry out in-depth special education and governance activities in outstanding areas of ethics, carry out special governance in the field of industry where the problem of lack of integrity is outstanding, and the need for integrity construction is urgently rectified, and resolutely correct the sinister evils of using power for personal gain, fraudulent fraud, forgiveness and forgiveness, and for the benefit of others, and establish an industry integrity .  (3) Accelerate the training of credit professionals.
  Strengthen the professional construction of credit management disciplines. Credit management is listed as an emerging and key discipline that is urgently needed for national economic system reform and social governance development. It supports qualified universities to set up credit management majors or offer related courses, and establishes credit management research directions in postgraduate training. Conduct research on credit theory, credit management, credit technology, credit standards, and credit policies.  Strengthen vocational training and professional evaluation of credit management. Establish and improve the credit management vocational training and professional evaluation system. Promote credit management vocational qualification training and cultivate a professional team of credit management. Promote and strengthen the exchange and training of credit practitioners and credit management personnel, and provide human resources support for the construction of social credit system.  4. Accelerating the construction and application of credit information systems  Improving the credit records of social members is the basic requirement for the construction of a social credit system. Bringing into play the power and role of industry, locality and market, accelerating the construction of credit information system, and improving the recording, integration and application of credit information are the basis and premise for the formation of trustworthy incentives and disciplinary mechanisms.  (1) Construction of industry credit information system.
  Strengthen the construction of credit records in key areas. Industrial and commercial, taxation, price, import and export, safe production, product quality, environmental protection, food and drug, medical and health, intellectual property, circulation services, engineering construction, e-commerce, transportation, contract performance, human resources and social security, education Focus on scientific research and other areas, improve industry credit records and credit files of employees.  Establish an industry credit information database. All departments should follow the principle of data standardization and application standardization, rely on the national major information projects, integrate the credit information resources in the industry, realize the electronic storage of credit records, accelerate the construction of credit information systems, and accelerate the interconnection of credit information between industries. Interoperability. Each industry is responsible for the organization and release of credit information in this industry.  (2) Construction of local credit information system.
  Accelerate the integration of government credit information. All regions shall record, improve and integrate the credit information generated during the process of performing public management functions by various departments and units in the region to form a unified credit information sharing platform, and provide information for enterprises, individuals and social credit agencies to inquire about government credit information. convenient.  Strengthen the application of credit information in the region. Each region shall formulate a catalogue for the disclosure of government credit information and form a monitoring mechanism for information disclosure. Vigorously promote the exchange and sharing of government affairs credit information of various departments and units in the region, strengthen the application of credit information in public management, and improve the efficiency of performance.  (3) Construction of credit information system.
  Speed up the construction of the credit information system. The credit reporting agency shall carry out credit information business, and shall establish a credit information system for enterprises, institutions and other social organizations and individuals, collect, organize, preserve and process credit information of enterprises and institutions and other social organizations and individuals according to law, and adopt Reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy of credit information. All regions and industries must support credit reporting agencies to establish a credit information system.  Provide professional credit information services to the outside world.Credit reporting agencies should provide professional credit information services according to market demand, and promote the innovation of credit service products in an orderly manner. Establish and improve the rules and regulations for internal risk prevention, avoid conflicts of interest and ensure information security, provide convenient, fast and efficient credit information services to customers in accordance with the law, and further expand credit reports in the banking, securities, insurance and government sectors. Application in various fields such as administrative law enforcement.  (4) Construction of a unified credit information platform for the financial industry.
  Improve the basic database of financial credit information. Continue to promote the construction of financial credit information basic database, improve data quality, improve system functions, strengthen system security operation management, further expand the coverage of credit reports, and improve the system's external service level.  Promote the construction of a unified credit information platform for the financial industry. Continue to promote the linkage of credit information systems between banks, securities, insurance, foreign exchange and other financial management departments, promote the construction of a unified credit information platform for the financial industry, and promote the exchange and sharing of credit information of financial regulatory authorities.  (5) Promoting the exchange and sharing of credit information.
  Gradually promote the exchange and sharing of government credit information. All regions and industries should be demand-oriented. Under the premise of protecting privacy, clear responsibilities, and timely and accurate data, we will establish a credit information exchange and sharing mechanism according to the principle of risk dispersion, and make overall use of the existing credit information system infrastructure. The interconnection and exchange of credit information systems and the exchange and sharing of credit information gradually form a credit information network covering all credit entities, all credit information categories, and all regions of the country. The competent departments of various industries shall classify and manage the credit information, determine the query authority, and apply for special requirements for special inquiry.  Promote information exchange and sharing between the government credit information system and the credit information system according to law. Give play to the role of market incentive mechanism, encourage social credit reporting agencies to strengthen the integration of open government credit information and non-government credit information, establish a credit information service product system for different objects, and meet the multi-level, diversified and specialized levies of society. Letter service needs.  V. Improve the operational mechanism of the social credit system with the focus on reward and punishment system  The operational mechanism is the institutional basis for ensuring the coordinated operation of the various systems of the social credit system. Among them, the trustworthiness incentive and the disciplinary mechanism of dishonesty directly affect the credit behavior of various social subjects, which is the core mechanism for the operation of the social credit system.  (1) Constructing a mechanism of trustworthiness and disciplinary action.
  Strengthen rewards and incentives for trustworthy subjects. Increase the recognition and publicity of trustworthy behavior. In accordance with the provisions of the integrity of enterprises and model individuals to commend, through the news media to widely publicize, create a gratifying and glorious atmosphere of public opinion. Development and reform, finance, finance, environmental protection, housing urban and rural construction, transportation, commerce, industry and commerce, taxation, quality inspection, safety supervision, customs, intellectual property and other departments, in the process of market supervision and public services, we must deepen credit information and The application of credit products supports the “green channel” of incentives for honest and trustworthy people to implement priority procedures and simplify procedures.  Strengthen the discipline and punishment of the subject of dishonesty. Strengthen administrative regulatory constraints and punishment. On the basis of the existing administrative punishment measures, we will improve the disciplinary system for dishonesty and establish a blacklist system and market exit mechanism for various industries. Promote the supervision of credit classification in market supervision, qualification recognition, administrative examination and approval, and policy support for market supervision and public services, and combine the types and extent of untrustworthiness of supervision targets to discredit the untrustworthy. Gradually establish the credit commitment system for administrative license applicants, and carry out applicant credit review to ensure that applicants have credit records in the credit agencies recommended by the government, and cooperate with credit reporting agencies to carry out credit information collection. Promote the formation of market discipline and discipline. Formulate credit benchmarking evaluation index system and evaluation method, improve the system of record and disclosure of untrustworthy information, and make untrustworthy people restricted in market transactions. Promote the formation of industry constraints and discipline. Develop industry self-regulation rules and monitor member compliance through industry associations. For those who violate the rules, according to the seriousness of the situation, the organization members and individual members are subject to warnings, industry criticism, public condemnation and other disciplinary measures. Promote the formation of social constraints and punishment. We will improve the supervision mechanism for public opinion, strengthen the disclosure and exposure of untrustworthy behaviors, give play to the role of mass discussion and discussion, and criticize and report. Through the moral condemnation of society, we will form a social shock and constrain the untrustworthy behavior of members of society.  Establish a reward and reporting system for untrustworthy behavior. Effectively implement rewards for whistle-blowers and protect the legitimate rights and interests of whistle-blowers.  Establish a multi-departmental and inter-regional credit joint reward and punishment mechanism. Through credit information exchange and sharing, multi-departmental and inter-regional credit rewards and punishments will be realized, so that the trustworthy will benefit everywhere and the untrustworthy will be unable to move.  (2) Establish and improve credit laws, regulations and standards.
  Improve the credit law and regulation system. Promote the work of credit legislation, so that credit information collection, inquiry, application, interconnection, credit information security and protection of subject rights and interests can be relied upon. The relevant supporting system and implementation rules of the “Regulations on the Management of Credit Information Industry” were issued, and a system for handling objection handling, complaint handling and infringement liability was established.  Promote the construction of industry, department and local credit systems. All regions and departments shall, according to the needs of the construction of credit systems in the region and related industries, formulate rules and regulations for regional or industry credit construction, clarify the responsibilities of the credit information record entities, and ensure that the credit information is objective, true, accurate and timely updated and improved. The open system of credit information sharing promotes the orderly development and utilization of credit information resources.  Establish a credit information classification management system. Develop a catalogue of credit information, clarify the classification of credit information, and in accordance with the attributes of credit information, combined with the protection of personal privacy and trade secrets, promote the classification management of credit information in the collection, sharing, use, and disclosure. Increase the investigation and punishment of trafficking in personal privacy and trade secrets.  Accelerate the construction of the credit information standard system. Formulate national unified credit information collection and classification management standards, and unify the credit indicator catalog and construction specifications.  Establish a unified social credit code system. Establish a unified social credit code system for natural persons, legal persons and other organizations. Improve relevant institutional standards and promote the widespread use of unified social credit codes in economic and social activities.  (3) Cultivate and standardize the credit service market.
  Develop various credit service agencies. Gradually establish a multi-level and all-round credit service organization system in which public credit service institutions and social credit service institutions complement each other, credit information basic services and value-added services complement each other.  Promote and standardize the development of the credit rating industry.Cultivate and develop local rating agencies to enhance the international influence of our rating agencies. Standardize the development of the credit rating market and improve the overall credibility of the credit rating industry. Explore innovative dual rating and re-rating systems. Encourage China's rating agencies to participate in international competition and develop international standards, and strengthen coordination and cooperation with credit rating agencies in other countries.  Promote the widespread use of credit service products. Expand the application scope of credit service products and increase the application of credit service products in social governance and market transactions. Encourage the development and innovation of credit service products, and promote the development of credit services such as credit insurance, credit guarantee, commercial factoring, performance guarantee, credit management consulting and training.  Establish an orderly and open system for government credit information. Clarify the open classification and basic catalogue of government credit information, orderly expand the opening of government credit information to the society, and optimize the development environment of credit investigation, credit rating and credit management industries.  Improve the credit service market supervision system. According to the different characteristics of the credit service market and institutional business, the classification supervision is implemented according to law, the supervision system is improved, the supervision duties are clearly defined, and the market order is effectively maintained. Promote the formulation of legal systems related to credit services, establish access and exit mechanisms for credit service institutions, achieve openness and transparency of qualifications for employment, further improve the norms of credit service business, and promote the healthy development of credit service industry.  Promote credit service institutions to improve corporate governance. Strengthen the internal control of credit service institutions, improve the restraint mechanism, and improve the quality of credit services.  Strengthen the credit construction of credit service agencies. Credit service agencies must establish codes of conduct, strengthen normative management, improve service quality, uphold impartiality and independence, and enhance credibility. Encourage all types of credit service agencies to set up chief credit supervisors and strengthen their credit management.  Strengthen self-discipline in the credit service industry. Promote the establishment of self-discipline organizations in the credit service industry, establish basic code of conduct and business practices for credit service agencies and practitioners within the organization, strengthen self-discipline constraints, and comprehensively improve the integrity of credit service organizations.  (4) Protecting the rights and interests of credit information entities.
  Improve the protection mechanism of credit information subject rights.Give full play to the role of administrative supervision, industry self-discipline and social supervision in the protection of the rights and interests of credit information subjects, and comprehensively use legal, economic and administrative means to effectively protect the rights and interests of credit information subjects. Strengthen the guidance education for credit information subjects and continuously enhance their awareness of safeguarding their legitimate rights and interests.  Establish a social encouragement and care mechanism that is self-correcting and self-motivated. Focusing on the establishment of an educational mechanism for the act of juvenile dishonesty, through the appropriate protection of members of society who have repented and corrected the old and slightly untrustworthy behavior, a positive incentive mechanism for trustworthiness is formed.  Establish a credit information infringement accountability mechanism. Formulate credit information objection handling, complaint handling, litigation management system and operating rules. Further strengthen law enforcement, and severely punish the credit service agencies for leaking state secrets, trade secrets, and infringement of personal privacy. Through various types of media, we disclose various behaviors that infringe the rights and interests of information subjects and strengthen the role of social supervision.  (5) Strengthening the security management of credit information.
  Improve the credit information security management system. Improve the credit information protection and network trust system, and establish and improve the credit information security monitoring system. Strengthen credit information security supervision and inspection, carry out credit information security risk assessment, and implement credit information security level protection. Carry out credit information system security certification and strengthen the security management of credit information service system. Establish and improve the credit information security emergency response mechanism. Strengthen the construction of credit information security infrastructure.  Strengthen the internal management of credit information security of credit service agencies. Strengthen the information security protection capabilities of credit service agencies, increase security, technology research and development, and capital investment, and build a credit information security system with high starting point and high standards. Formulate and implement rules and regulations on the collection, sorting, processing, preservation and use of credit information in accordance with the law.  6. Establish an implementation support system  (1) Strengthen the implementation of responsibilities.
  All regions and departments must unify their thinking, and in accordance with the overall requirements of this plan, establish a planning outline promotion group, and formulate specific implementation plans according to the division of responsibilities and actual work.  All regions and departments should regularly summarize and evaluate the construction of social credit systems in their respective regions and related industries, identify problems in time and propose improvement measures.  The regions, departments and units that have made outstanding achievements in the construction of the social credit system shall be commended according to the regulations. The responsible persons of areas, departments and units with insufficient promotion and lack of trust shall be subject to administrative accountability in accordance with regulations.  (2) Increase policy support.
  The people's governments at all levels shall, in accordance with the needs of the construction of the social credit system, ensure that the funds that should be borne by the government are included in the budget. Increase financial support for credit infrastructure construction and innovation demonstration projects in key areas.  Encourage all regions and departments to combine the planning outline and the actual work of their own work, first try in the field of innovation and demonstration of social credit system construction, and provide support in government investment and financing arrangements.  (3) Implement special projects.
  Government affairs information disclosure project. In-depth implementation of the "People's Republic of China Government Information Disclosure Ordinance", in accordance with the initiative to open, according to the application of open classification management, and effectively increase the transparency of government information, establish an open and transparent government image.  Rural credit system construction project. Establish credit files for rural social members such as farmers, farms, farmer cooperatives, leisure agriculture, agricultural production and processing enterprises, and consolidate the foundation of rural credit system construction. We will carry out the activities of creating credit users, credit villages and credit townships (towns), deepen the work of young credit model households, and play a typical demonstration role so that farmers can receive education and gain benefits in participation, and improve credit awareness in practice. Promote the credit construction of agricultural enterprises such as agricultural production, processing, distribution enterprises and leisure agriculture. Establish and improve the peasant credit joint guarantee system, promote and develop agricultural insurance, and improve the rural credit guarantee system.  Small and micro enterprise credit system construction project.Establish and improve the credit record and evaluation system suitable for the characteristics of small and micro enterprises, improve the credit information inquiry, shared service network and regional small and micro enterprise credit records of small and micro enterprises. Guide various credit service agencies to provide credit services for small and micro enterprises, innovate small and micro enterprises to collect credit service methods, encourage various forms of small and micro enterprise integrity promotion and training activities, and create good credit for small and micro enterprises to facilitate financing and healthy development. surroundings.  (4) Promoting innovation demonstration.
  Comprehensive demonstration of local credit construction. The demonstration area takes the lead in integrating the credit information of various departments and units in the region to form a unified credit information sharing platform, which is open to the society in an orderly manner according to law. In the process of economic and social management and provision of public services, various departments in the demonstration area strengthen the use of credit information and credit products as an essential element of government management and services. Establish and improve the social credit reward and punishment linkage mechanism, so that the trustworthy will be encouraged and rewarded, and the untrustworthy will be restricted and disciplined. The typical acts of dishonesty, such as violations of laws and regulations, are made public, and the crackdown on serious acts of dishonesty is intensified. Explore the establishment of local government credit evaluation standards and methods, and conduct local government comprehensive credit evaluation in the issuance of local government bonds and other credit financing activities that comply with laws and regulations.  Demonstration of regional credit construction cooperation. Explore the establishment of regional credit linkage mechanism, carry out innovative demonstration of regional credit system construction, promote credit information exchange and sharing, realize cross-regional credit reward and punishment linkage, and optimize regional credit environment.  Key areas and industry credit information application demonstration. Piloting the credit reporting system in the fields of food and drug safety, environmental protection, safe production, product quality, engineering construction, e-commerce, securities and futures, financing guarantees, government procurement, and bidding.  (5) Improve organizational security.
  Improve the organization and coordination mechanism. We will improve the inter-ministerial joint conference system for the construction of a social credit system, give full play to its overall coordination role, and strengthen the guidance, supervision, and inspection of the construction of social credit systems in various regions and departments. To improve the organization, all regions and departments must set up specialized agencies to promote the construction of a social credit system. Establish a national credit association, strengthen industry self-discipline, and give full play to the role of various social organizations in promoting the construction of a social credit system.  Establish a local government promotion mechanism. Local people's governments at all levels should incorporate the construction of social credit system into important work schedules, promote the construction of government integrity, business integrity, social integrity and judicial public trust, strengthen supervision, strengthen assessment, and make social credit system construction work as target responsibility assessment and performance evaluation. Important content.  Establish a work notification and coordination system. The Inter-Ministerial Joint Conference on the Construction of Social Credit System regularly holds work coordination meetings to inform the progress of the work and timely study and solve major problems in the construction of the social credit system.




国务院关于印发社会信用体系建设
规划纲要(2014—2020年)的通知
国发〔2014〕21号

各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
  现将《社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)》印发给你们,请认真贯彻执行。

                              国务院
                            2014年6月14日

  (此件公开发布)

 

社会信用体系建设规划纲要
(2014—2020年)

  社会信用体系是社会主义市场经济体制和社会治理体制的重要组成部分。它以法律、法规、标准和契约为依据,以健全覆盖社会成员的信用记录和信用基础设施网络为基础,以信用信息合规应用和信用服务体系为支撑,以树立诚信文化理念、弘扬诚信传统美德为内在要求,以守信激励和失信约束为奖惩机制,目的是提高全社会的诚信意识和信用水平。
  加快社会信用体系建设是全面落实科学发展观、构建社会主义和谐社会的重要基础,是完善社会主义市场经济体制、加强和创新社会治理的重要手段,对增强社会成员诚信意识,营造优良信用环境,提升国家整体竞争力,促进社会发展与文明进步具有重要意义。
  根据党的十八大提出的“加强政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设”,党的十八届三中全会提出的“建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信”,《中共中央 国务院关于加强和创新社会管理的意见》提出的“建立健全社会诚信制度”,以及《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》(以下简称“十二五”规划纲要)提出的“加快社会信用体系建设”的总体要求,制定本规划纲要。规划期为2014—2020年。
  一、社会信用体系建设总体思路
  (一)发展现状。
  党中央、国务院高度重视社会信用体系建设。有关地区、部门和单位探索推进,社会信用体系建设取得积极进展。国务院建立社会信用体系建设部际联席会议制度统筹推进信用体系建设,公布实施《征信业管理条例》,一批信用体系建设的规章和标准相继出台。全国集中统一的金融信用信息基础数据库建成,小微企业和农村信用体系建设积极推进;各部门推动信用信息公开,开展行业信用评价,实施信用分类监管;各行业积极开展诚信宣传教育和诚信自律活动;各地区探索建立综合性信用信息共享平台,促进本地区各部门、各单位的信用信息整合应用;社会对信用服务产品的需求日益上升,信用服务市场规模不断扩大。
  我国社会信用体系建设虽然取得一定进展,但与经济发展水平和社会发展阶段不匹配、不协调、不适应的矛盾仍然突出。存在的主要问题包括:覆盖全社会的征信系统尚未形成,社会成员信用记录严重缺失,守信激励和失信惩戒机制尚不健全,守信激励不足,失信成本偏低;信用服务市场不发达,服务体系不成熟,服务行为不规范,服务机构公信力不足,信用信息主体权益保护机制缺失;社会诚信意识和信用水平偏低,履约践诺、诚实守信的社会氛围尚未形成,重特大生产安全事故、食品药品安全事件时有发生,商业欺诈、制假售假、偷逃骗税、虚报冒领、学术不端等现象屡禁不止,政务诚信度、司法公信度离人民群众的期待还有一定差距等。
  (二)形势和要求。
  我国正处于深化经济体制改革和完善社会主义市场经济体制的攻坚期。现代市场经济是信用经济,建立健全社会信用体系,是整顿和规范市场经济秩序、改善市场信用环境、降低交易成本、防范经济风险的重要举措,是减少政府对经济的行政干预、完善社会主义市场经济体制的迫切要求。
  我国正处于加快转变发展方式、实现科学发展的战略机遇期。加快推进社会信用体系建设,是促进资源优化配置、扩大内需、促进产业结构优化升级的重要前提,是完善科学发展机制的迫切要求。
  我国正处于经济社会转型的关键期。利益主体更加多元化,各种社会矛盾凸显,社会组织形式及管理方式也在发生深刻变化。全面推进社会信用体系建设,是增强社会诚信、促进社会互信、减少社会矛盾的有效手段,是加强和创新社会治理、构建社会主义和谐社会的迫切要求。
  我国正处于在更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次上提高开放型经济水平的拓展期。经济全球化使我国对外开放程度不断提高,与其他国家和地区的经济社会交流更加密切。完善社会信用体系,是深化国际合作与交往,树立国际品牌和声誉,降低对外交易成本,提升国家软实力和国际影响力的必要条件,是推动建立客观、公正、合理、平衡的国际信用评级体系,适应全球化新形势,驾驭全球化新格局的迫切要求。
  (三)指导思想和目标原则。
  全面推动社会信用体系建设,必须坚持以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,按照党的十八大、十八届三中全会和“十二五”规划纲要精神,以健全信用法律法规和标准体系、形成覆盖全社会的征信系统为基础,以推进政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设为主要内容,以推进诚信文化建设、建立守信激励和失信惩戒机制为重点,以推进行业信用建设、地方信用建设和信用服务市场发展为支撑,以提高全社会诚信意识和信用水平、改善经济社会运行环境为目的,以人为本,在全社会广泛形成守信光荣、失信可耻的浓厚氛围,使诚实守信成为全民的自觉行为规范。
  社会信用体系建设的主要目标是:到2020年,社会信用基础性法律法规和标准体系基本建立,以信用信息资源共享为基础的覆盖全社会的征信系统基本建成,信用监管体制基本健全,信用服务市场体系比较完善,守信激励和失信惩戒机制全面发挥作用。政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设取得明显进展,市场和社会满意度大幅提高。全社会诚信意识普遍增强,经济社会发展信用环境明显改善,经济社会秩序显著好转。
  社会信用体系建设的主要原则是:
  政府推动,社会共建。充分发挥政府的组织、引导、推动和示范作用。政府负责制定实施发展规划,健全法规和标准,培育和监管信用服务市场。注重发挥市场机制作用,协调并优化资源配置,鼓励和调动社会力量,广泛参与,共同推进,形成社会信用体系建设合力。
  健全法制,规范发展。逐步建立健全信用法律法规体系和信用标准体系,加强信用信息管理,规范信用服务体系发展,维护信用信息安全和信息主体权益。
  统筹规划,分步实施。针对社会信用体系建设的长期性、系统性和复杂性,强化顶层设计,立足当前,着眼长远,统筹全局,系统规划,有计划、分步骤地组织实施。
  重点突破,强化应用。选择重点领域和典型地区开展信用建设示范。积极推广信用产品的社会化应用,促进信用信息互联互通、协同共享,健全社会信用奖惩联动机制,营造诚实、自律、守信、互信的社会信用环境。
  二、推进重点领域诚信建设
  (一)加快推进政务诚信建设。
  政务诚信是社会信用体系建设的关键,各类政务行为主体的诚信水平,对其他社会主体诚信建设发挥着重要的表率和导向作用。
  坚持依法行政。将依法行政贯穿于决策、执行、监督和服务的全过程,全面推进政务公开,在保护国家信息安全、商业秘密和个人隐私的前提下,依法公开在行政管理中掌握的信用信息,建立有效的信息共享机制。切实提高政府工作效率和服务水平,转变政府职能。健全权力运行制约和监督体系,确保决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调。完善政府决策机制和程序,提高决策透明度。进一步推广重大决策事项公示和听证制度,拓宽公众参与政府决策的渠道,加强对权力运行的社会监督和约束,提升政府公信力,树立政府公开、公平、清廉的诚信形象。
  发挥政府诚信建设示范作用。各级人民政府首先要加强自身诚信建设,以政府的诚信施政,带动全社会诚信意识的树立和诚信水平的提高。在行政许可、政府采购、招标投标、劳动就业、社会保障、科研管理、干部选拔任用和管理监督、申请政府资金支持等领域,率先使用信用信息和信用产品,培育信用服务市场发展。
  加快政府守信践诺机制建设。严格履行政府向社会作出的承诺,把政务履约和守诺服务纳入政府绩效评价体系,把发展规划和政府工作报告关于经济社会发展目标落实情况以及为百姓办实事的践诺情况作为评价政府诚信水平的重要内容,推动各地区、各部门逐步建立健全政务和行政承诺考核制度。各级人民政府对依法作出的政策承诺和签订的各类合同要认真履约和兑现。要积极营造公平竞争、统一高效的市场环境,不得施行地方保护主义措施,如滥用行政权力封锁市场、包庇纵容行政区域内社会主体的违法违规和失信行为等。要支持统计部门依法统计、真实统计。政府举债要依法依规、规模适度、风险可控、程序透明。政府收支必须强化预算约束,提高透明度。加强和完善群众监督和舆论监督机制。完善政务诚信约束和问责机制。各级人民政府要自觉接受本级人大的法律监督和政协的民主监督。加大监察、审计等部门对行政行为的监督和审计力度。
  加强公务员诚信管理和教育。建立公务员诚信档案,依法依规将公务员个人有关事项报告、廉政记录、年度考核结果、相关违法违纪违约行为等信用信息纳入档案,将公务员诚信记录作为干部考核、任用和奖惩的重要依据。深入开展公务员诚信、守法和道德教育,加强法律知识和信用知识学习,编制公务员诚信手册,增强公务员法律和诚信意识,建立一支守法守信、高效廉洁的公务员队伍。
  (二)深入推进商务诚信建设。
  提高商务诚信水平是社会信用体系建设的重点,是商务关系有效维护、商务运行成本有效降低、营商环境有效改善的基本条件,是各类商务主体可持续发展的生存之本,也是各类经济活动高效开展的基础保障。
  生产领域信用建设。建立安全生产信用公告制度,完善安全生产承诺和安全生产不良信用记录及安全生产失信行为惩戒制度。以煤矿、非煤矿山、危险化学品、烟花爆竹、特种设备生产企业以及民用爆炸物品生产、销售企业和爆破企业或单位为重点,健全安全生产准入和退出信用审核机制,促进企业落实安全生产主体责任。以食品、药品、日用消费品、农产品和农业投入品为重点,加强各类生产经营主体生产和加工环节的信用管理,建立产品质量信用信息异地和部门间共享制度。推动建立质量信用征信系统,加快完善12365产品质量投诉举报咨询服务平台,建立质量诚信报告、失信黑名单披露、市场禁入和退出制度。
  流通领域信用建设。研究制定商贸流通领域企业信用信息征集共享制度,完善商贸流通企业信用评价基本规则和指标体系。推进批发零售、商贸物流、住宿餐饮及居民服务行业信用建设,开展企业信用分类管理。完善零售商与供应商信用合作模式。强化反垄断与反不正当竞争执法,加大对市场混淆行为、虚假宣传、商业欺诈、商业诋毁、商业贿赂等违法行为的查处力度,对典型案件、重大案件予以曝光,增加企业失信成本,促进诚信经营和公平竞争。逐步建立以商品条形码等标识为基础的全国商品流通追溯体系。加强检验检疫质量诚信体系建设。支持商贸服务企业信用融资,发展商业保理,规范预付消费行为。鼓励企业扩大信用销售,促进个人信用消费。推进对外经济贸易信用建设,进一步加强对外贸易、对外援助、对外投资合作等领域的信用信息管理、信用风险监测预警和企业信用等级分类管理。借助电子口岸管理平台,建立完善进出口企业信用评价体系、信用分类管理和联合监管制度。
  金融领域信用建设。创新金融信用产品,改善金融服务,维护金融消费者个人信息安全,保护金融消费者合法权益。加大对金融欺诈、恶意逃废银行债务、内幕交易、制售假保单、骗保骗赔、披露虚假信息、非法集资、逃套骗汇等金融失信行为的惩戒力度,规范金融市场秩序。加强金融信用信息基础设施建设,进一步扩大信用记录的覆盖面,强化金融业对守信者的激励作用和对失信者的约束作用。
  税务领域信用建设。建立跨部门信用信息共享机制。开展纳税人基础信息、各类交易信息、财产保有和转让信息以及纳税记录等涉税信息的交换、比对和应用工作。进一步完善纳税信用等级评定和发布制度,加强税务领域信用分类管理,发挥信用评定差异对纳税人的奖惩作用。建立税收违法黑名单制度。推进纳税信用与其他社会信用联动管理,提升纳税人税法遵从度。
  价格领域信用建设。指导企业和经营者加强价格自律,规范和引导经营者价格行为,实行经营者明码标价和收费公示制度,着力推行“明码实价”。督促经营者加强内部价格管理,根据经营者条件建立健全内部价格管理制度。完善经营者价格诚信制度,做好信息披露工作,推动实施奖惩制度。强化价格执法检查与反垄断执法,依法查处捏造和散布涨价信息、价格欺诈、价格垄断等价格失信行为,对典型案例予以公开曝光,规范市场价格秩序。
  工程建设领域信用建设。推进工程建设市场信用体系建设。加快工程建设市场信用法规制度建设,制定工程建设市场各方主体和从业人员信用标准。推进工程建设领域项目信息公开和诚信体系建设,依托政府网站,全面设立项目信息和信用信息公开共享专栏,集中公开工程建设项目信息和信用信息,推动建设全国性的综合检索平台,实现工程建设项目信息和信用信息公开共享的“一站式”综合检索服务。深入开展工程质量诚信建设。完善工程建设市场准入退出制度,加大对发生重大工程质量、安全责任事故或有其他重大失信行为的企业及负有责任的从业人员的惩戒力度。建立企业和从业人员信用评价结果与资质审批、执业资格注册、资质资格取消等审批审核事项的关联管理机制。建立科学、有效的建设领域从业人员信用评价机制和失信责任追溯制度,将肢解发包、转包、违法分包、拖欠工程款和农民工工资等列入失信责任追究范围。
  政府采购领域信用建设。加强政府采购信用管理,强化联动惩戒,保护政府采购当事人的合法权益。制定供应商、评审专家、政府采购代理机构以及相关从业人员的信用记录标准。依法建立政府采购供应商不良行为记录名单,对列入不良行为记录名单的供应商,在一定期限内禁止参加政府采购活动。完善政府采购市场的准入和退出机制,充分利用工商、税务、金融、检察等其他部门提供的信用信息,加强对政府采购当事人和相关人员的信用管理。加快建设全国统一的政府采购管理交易系统,提高政府采购活动透明度,实现信用信息的统一发布和共享。
  招标投标领域信用建设。扩大招标投标信用信息公开和共享范围,建立涵盖招标投标情况的信用评价指标和评价标准体系,健全招标投标信用信息公开和共享制度。进一步贯彻落实招标投标违法行为记录公告制度,推动完善奖惩联动机制。依托电子招标投标系统及其公共服务平台,实现招标投标和合同履行等信用信息的互联互通、实时交换和整合共享。鼓励市场主体运用基本信用信息和第三方信用评价结果,并将其作为投标人资格审查、评标、定标和合同签订的重要依据。
  交通运输领域信用建设。形成部门规章制度和地方性法规、地方政府规章相结合的交通运输信用法规体系。完善信用考核标准,实施分类考核监管。针对公路、铁路、水路、民航、管道等运输市场不同经营门类分别制定考核指标,加强信用考核评价监督管理,积极引导第三方机构参与信用考核评价,逐步建立交通运输管理机构与社会信用评价机构相结合,具有监督、申诉和复核机制的综合考核评价体系。将各类交通运输违法行为列入失信记录。鼓励和支持各单位在采购交通运输服务、招标投标、人员招聘等方面优先选择信用考核等级高的交通运输企业和从业人员。对失信企业和从业人员,要加强监管和惩戒,逐步建立跨地区、跨行业信用奖惩联动机制。
  电子商务领域信用建设。建立健全电子商务企业客户信用管理和交易信用评估制度,加强电子商务企业自身开发和销售信用产品的质量监督。推行电子商务主体身份标识制度,完善网店实名制。加强网店产品质量检查,严厉查处电子商务领域制假售假、传销活动、虚假广告、以次充好、服务违约等欺诈行为。打击内外勾结、伪造流量和商业信誉的行为,对失信主体建立行业限期禁入制度。促进电子商务信用信息与社会其他领域相关信息的交换和共享,推动电子商务与线下交易信用评价。完善电子商务信用服务保障制度,推动信用调查、信用评估、信用担保、信用保险、信用支付、商账管理等第三方信用服务和产品在电子商务中的推广应用。开展电子商务网站可信认证服务工作,推广应用网站可信标识,为电子商务用户识别假冒、钓鱼网站提供手段。
  统计领域信用建设。开展企业诚信统计承诺活动,营造诚实报数光荣、失信造假可耻的良好风气。完善统计诚信评价标准体系。建立健全企业统计诚信评价制度和统计从业人员诚信档案。加强执法检查,严厉查处统计领域的弄虚作假行为,建立统计失信行为通报和公开曝光制度。加大对统计失信企业的联合惩戒力度。将统计失信企业名单档案及其违法违规信息纳入金融、工商等行业和部门信用信息系统,将统计信用记录与企业融资、政府补贴、工商注册登记等直接挂钩,切实强化对统计失信行为的惩戒和制约。
  中介服务业信用建设。建立完善中介服务机构及其从业人员的信用记录和披露制度,并作为市场行政执法部门实施信用分类管理的重要依据。重点加强公证仲裁类、律师类、会计类、担保类、鉴证类、检验检测类、评估类、认证类、代理类、经纪类、职业介绍类、咨询类、交易类等机构信用分类管理,探索建立科学合理的评估指标体系、评估制度和工作机制。
  会展、广告领域信用建设。推动展会主办机构诚信办展,践行诚信服务公约,建立信用档案和违法违规单位信息披露制度,推广信用服务和产品的应用。加强广告业诚信建设,建立健全广告业信用分类管理制度,打击各类虚假广告,突出广告制作、传播环节各参与者责任,完善广告活动主体失信惩戒机制和严重失信淘汰机制。
  企业诚信管理制度建设。开展各行业企业诚信承诺活动,加大诚信企业示范宣传和典型失信案件曝光力度,引导企业增强社会责任感,在生产经营、财务管理和劳动用工管理等各环节中强化信用自律,改善商务信用生态环境。鼓励企业建立客户档案、开展客户诚信评价,将客户诚信交易记录纳入应收账款管理、信用销售授信额度计量,建立科学的企业信用管理流程,防范信用风险,提升企业综合竞争力。强化企业在发债、借款、担保等债权债务信用交易及生产经营活动中诚信履约。鼓励和支持有条件的企业设立信用管理师。鼓励企业建立内部职工诚信考核与评价制度。加强供水、供电、供热、燃气、电信、铁路、航空等关系人民群众日常生活行业企业的自身信用建设。
  (三)全面推进社会诚信建设。
  社会诚信是社会信用体系建设的基础,社会成员之间只有以诚相待、以信为本,才会形成和谐友爱的人际关系,才能促进社会文明进步,实现社会和谐稳定和长治久安。
  医药卫生和计划生育领域信用建设。加强医疗卫生机构信用管理和行业诚信作风建设。树立大医精诚的价值理念,坚持仁心仁术的执业操守。培育诚信执业、诚信采购、诚信诊疗、诚信收费、诚信医保理念,坚持合理检查、合理用药、合理治疗、合理收费等诚信医疗服务准则,全面建立药品价格、医疗服务价格公示制度,开展诚信医院、诚信药店创建活动,制定医疗机构和执业医师、药师、护士等医务人员信用评价指标标准,推进医院评审评价和医师定期考核,开展医务人员医德综合评价,惩戒收受贿赂、过度诊疗等违法和失信行为,建立诚信医疗服务体系。加快完善药品安全领域信用制度,建立药品研发、生产和流通企业信用档案。积极开展以“诚信至上,以质取胜”为主题的药品安全诚信承诺活动,切实提高药品安全信用监管水平,严厉打击制假贩假行为,保障人民群众用药安全有效。加强人口计生领域信用建设,开展人口和计划生育信用信息共享工作。
  社会保障领域信用建设。在救灾、救助、养老、社会保险、慈善、彩票等方面,建立全面的诚信制度,打击各类诈捐骗捐等失信行为。建立健全社会救助、保障性住房等民生政策实施中的申请、审核、退出等各环节的诚信制度,加强对申请相关民生政策的条件审核,强化对社会救助动态管理及保障房使用的监管,将失信和违规的个人纳入信用黑名单。构建居民家庭经济状况核对信息系统,建立和完善低收入家庭认定机制,确保社会救助、保障性住房等民生政策公平、公正和健康运行。建立健全社会保险诚信管理制度,加强社会保险经办管理,加强社会保险领域的劳动保障监督执法,规范参保缴费行为,加大对医保定点医院、定点药店、工伤保险协议医疗机构等社会保险协议服务机构及其工作人员、各类参保人员的违规、欺诈、骗保等行为的惩戒力度,防止和打击各种骗保行为。进一步完善社会保险基金管理制度,提高基金征收、管理、支付等各环节的透明度,推动社会保险诚信制度建设,规范参保缴费行为,确保社会保险基金的安全运行。
  劳动用工领域信用建设。进一步落实和完善企业劳动保障守法诚信制度,制定重大劳动保障违法行为社会公示办法。建立用人单位拖欠工资违法行为公示制度,健全用人单位劳动保障诚信等级评价办法。规范用工行为,加强对劳动合同履行和仲裁的管理,推动企业积极开展和谐劳动关系创建活动。加强劳动保障监督执法,加大对违法行为的打击力度。加强人力资源市场诚信建设,规范职业中介行为,打击各种黑中介、黑用工等违法失信行为。
  教育、科研领域信用建设。加强教师和科研人员诚信教育。开展教师诚信承诺活动,自觉接受广大学生、家长和社会各界的监督。发挥教师诚信执教、为人师表的影响作用。加强学生诚信教育,培养诚实守信良好习惯,为提高全民族诚信素质奠定基础。探索建立教育机构及其从业人员、教师和学生、科研机构和科技社团及科研人员的信用评价制度,将信用评价与考试招生、学籍管理、学历学位授予、科研项目立项、专业技术职务评聘、岗位聘用、评选表彰等挂钩,努力解决学历造假、论文抄袭、学术不端、考试招生作弊等问题。
  文化、体育、旅游领域信用建设。依托全国文化市场技术监管与公共服务平台,建立健全娱乐、演出、艺术品、网络文化等领域文化企业主体、从业人员以及文化产品的信用信息数据库;依法制定文化市场诚信管理措施,加强文化市场动态监管。制定职业体育从业人员诚信从业准则,建立职业体育从业人员、职业体育俱乐部和中介企业信用等级的第三方评估制度,推进相关信用信息记录和信用评级在参加或举办职业体育赛事、职业体育准入、转会等方面广泛运用。制定旅游从业人员诚信服务准则,建立旅游业消费者意见反馈和投诉记录与公开制度,建立旅行社、旅游景区和宾馆饭店信用等级第三方评估制度。
  知识产权领域信用建设。建立健全知识产权诚信管理制度,出台知识产权保护信用评价办法。重点打击侵犯知识产权和制售假冒伪劣商品行为,将知识产权侵权行为信息纳入失信记录,强化对盗版侵权等知识产权侵权失信行为的联合惩戒,提升全社会的知识产权保护意识。开展知识产权服务机构信用建设,探索建立各类知识产权服务标准化体系和诚信评价制度。
  环境保护和能源节约领域信用建设。推进国家环境监测、信息与统计能力建设,加强环保信用数据的采集和整理,实现环境保护工作业务协同和信息共享,完善环境信息公开目录。建立环境管理、监测信息公开制度。完善环评文件责任追究机制,建立环评机构及其从业人员、评估专家诚信档案数据库,强化对环评机构及其从业人员、评估专家的信用考核分类监管。建立企业对所排放污染物开展自行监测并公布污染物排放情况以及突发环境事件发生和处理情况制度。建立企业环境行为信用评价制度,定期发布评价结果,并组织开展动态分类管理,根据企业的信用等级予以相应的鼓励、警示或惩戒。完善企业环境行为信用信息共享机制,加强与银行、证券、保险、商务等部门的联动。加强国家能源利用数据统计、分析与信息上报能力建设。加强重点用能单位节能目标责任考核,定期公布考核结果,研究建立重点用能单位信用评价机制。强化对能源审计、节能评估和审查机构及其从业人员的信用评级和监管。研究开展节能服务公司信用评价工作,并逐步向全社会定期发布信用评级结果。加强对环资项目评审专家从业情况的信用考核管理。
  社会组织诚信建设。依托法人单位信息资源库,加快完善社会组织登记管理信息。健全社会组织信息公开制度,引导社会组织提升运作的公开性和透明度,规范社会组织信息公开行为。把诚信建设内容纳入各类社会组织章程,强化社会组织诚信自律,提高社会组织公信力。发挥行业协会(商会)在行业信用建设中的作用,加强会员诚信宣传教育和培训。
  自然人信用建设。突出自然人信用建设在社会信用体系建设中的基础性作用,依托国家人口信息资源库,建立完善自然人在经济社会活动中的信用记录,实现全国范围内自然人信用记录全覆盖。加强重点人群职业信用建设,建立公务员、企业法定代表人、律师、会计从业人员、注册会计师、统计从业人员、注册税务师、审计师、评估师、认证和检验检测从业人员、证券期货从业人员、上市公司高管人员、保险经纪人、医务人员、教师、科研人员、专利服务从业人员、项目经理、新闻媒体从业人员、导游、执业兽医等人员信用记录,推广使用职业信用报告,引导职业道德建设与行为规范。
  互联网应用及服务领域信用建设。大力推进网络诚信建设,培育依法办网、诚信用网理念,逐步落实网络实名制,完善网络信用建设的法律保障,大力推进网络信用监管机制建设。建立网络信用评价体系,对互联网企业的服务经营行为、上网人员的网上行为进行信用评估,记录信用等级。建立涵盖互联网企业、上网个人的网络信用档案,积极推进建立网络信用信息与社会其他领域相关信用信息的交换共享机制,大力推动网络信用信息在社会各领域推广应用。建立网络信用黑名单制度,将实施网络欺诈、造谣传谣、侵害他人合法权益等严重网络失信行为的企业、个人列入黑名单,对列入黑名单的主体采取网上行为限制、行业禁入等措施,通报相关部门并进行公开曝光。
  (四)大力推进司法公信建设。
  司法公信是社会信用体系建设的重要内容,是树立司法权威的前提,是社会公平正义的底线。
  法院公信建设。提升司法审判信息化水平,实现覆盖审判工作全过程的全国四级法院审判信息互联互通。推进强制执行案件信息公开,完善执行联动机制,提高生效法律文书执行率。发挥审判职能作用,鼓励诚信交易、倡导互信合作,制裁商业欺诈和恣意违约毁约等失信行为,引导诚实守信风尚。
  检察公信建设。进一步深化检务公开,创新检务公开的手段和途径,广泛听取群众意见,保障人民群众对检察工作的知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权。继续推行“阳光办案”,严格管理制度,强化内外部监督,建立健全专项检查、同步监督、责任追究机制。充分发挥法律监督职能作用,加大查办和预防职务犯罪力度,促进诚信建设。完善行贿犯罪档案查询制度,规范和加强查询工作管理,建立健全行贿犯罪档案查询与应用的社会联动机制。
  公共安全领域公信建设。全面推行“阳光执法”,依法及时公开执法办案的制度规范、程序时限等信息,对于办案进展等不宜向社会公开,但涉及特定权利义务、需要特定对象知悉的信息,应当告知特定对象,或者为特定对象提供查询服务。进一步加强人口信息同各地区、各部门信息资源的交换和共享,完善国家人口信息资源库建设。将公民交通安全违法情况纳入诚信档案,促进全社会成员提高交通安全意识。定期向社会公开火灾高危单位消防安全评估结果,并作为单位信用等级的重要参考依据。将社会单位遵守消防安全法律法规情况纳入诚信管理,强化社会单位消防安全主体责任。
  司法行政系统公信建设。进一步提高监狱、戒毒场所、社区矫正机构管理的规范化、制度化水平,维护服刑人员、戒毒人员、社区矫正人员合法权益。大力推进司法行政信息公开,进一步规范和创新律师、公证、基层法律服务、法律援助、司法考试、司法鉴定等信息管理和披露手段,保障人民群众的知情权。
  司法执法和从业人员信用建设。建立各级公安、司法行政等工作人员信用档案,依法依规将徇私枉法以及不作为等不良记录纳入档案,并作为考核评价和奖惩依据。推进律师、公证员、基层法律服务工作者、法律援助人员、司法鉴定人员等诚信规范执业。建立司法从业人员诚信承诺制度。
  健全促进司法公信的制度基础。深化司法体制和工作机制改革,推进执法规范化建设,严密执法程序,坚持有法必依、违法必究和法律面前人人平等,提高司法工作的科学化、制度化和规范化水平。充分发挥人大、政协和社会公众对司法工作的监督作用,完善司法机关之间的相互监督制约机制,强化司法机关的内部监督,实现以监督促公平、促公正、促公信。
  三、加强诚信教育与诚信文化建设
  诚信教育与诚信文化建设是引领社会成员诚信自律、提升社会成员道德素养的重要途径,是社会主义核心价值体系建设的重要内容。
  (一)普及诚信教育。
  以建设社会主义核心价值体系、培育和践行社会主义核心价值观为根本,将诚信教育贯穿公民道德建设和精神文明创建全过程。推进公民道德建设工程,加强社会公德、职业道德、家庭美德和个人品德教育,传承中华传统美德,弘扬时代新风,在全社会形成“以诚实守信为荣、以见利忘义为耻”的良好风尚。
  在各级各类教育和培训中进一步充实诚信教育内容。大力开展信用宣传普及教育进机关、进企业、进学校、进社区、进村屯、进家庭活动。
  建好用好道德讲堂,倡导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善等价值理念和道德规范。开展群众道德评议活动,对诚信缺失、不讲信用现象进行分析评议,引导人们诚实守信、遵德守礼。
  (二)加强诚信文化建设。
  弘扬诚信文化。以社会成员为对象,以诚信宣传为手段,以诚信教育为载体,大力倡导诚信道德规范,弘扬中华民族积极向善、诚实守信的传统文化和现代市场经济的契约精神,形成崇尚诚信、践行诚信的社会风尚。
  树立诚信典型。充分发挥电视、广播、报纸、网络等媒体的宣传引导作用,结合道德模范评选和各行业诚信创建活动,树立社会诚信典范,使社会成员学有榜样、赶有目标,使诚实守信成为全社会的自觉追求。
  深入开展诚信主题活动。有步骤、有重点地组织开展“诚信活动周”、“质量月”、“安全生产月”、“诚信兴商宣传月”、“3·5”学雷锋活动日、“3·15”国际消费者权益保护日、“6·14”信用记录关爱日、“12·4”全国法制宣传日等公益活动,突出诚信主题,营造诚信和谐的社会氛围。
  大力开展重点行业领域诚信问题专项治理。深入开展道德领域突出问题专项教育和治理活动,针对诚信缺失问题突出、诚信建设需求迫切的行业领域开展专项治理,坚决纠正以权谋私、造假欺诈、见利忘义、损人利己的歪风邪气,树立行业诚信风尚。
  (三)加快信用专业人才培养。
  加强信用管理学科专业建设。把信用管理列为国家经济体制改革与社会治理发展急需的新兴、重点学科,支持有条件的高校设置信用管理专业或开设相关课程,在研究生培养中开设信用管理研究方向。开展信用理论、信用管理、信用技术、信用标准、信用政策等方面研究。
  加强信用管理职业培训与专业考评。建立健全信用管理职业培训与专业考评制度。推广信用管理职业资格培训,培养信用管理专业化队伍。促进和加强信用从业人员、信用管理人员的交流与培训,为社会信用体系建设提供人力资源支撑。
  四、加快推进信用信息系统建设和应用
  健全社会成员信用记录是社会信用体系建设的基本要求。发挥行业、地方、市场的力量和作用,加快推进信用信息系统建设,完善信用信息的记录、整合和应用,是形成守信激励和失信惩戒机制的基础和前提。
  (一)行业信用信息系统建设。
  加强重点领域信用记录建设。以工商、纳税、价格、进出口、安全生产、产品质量、环境保护、食品药品、医疗卫生、知识产权、流通服务、工程建设、电子商务、交通运输、合同履约、人力资源和社会保障、教育科研等领域为重点,完善行业信用记录和从业人员信用档案。
  建立行业信用信息数据库。各部门要以数据标准化和应用标准化为原则,依托国家各项重大信息化工程,整合行业内的信用信息资源,实现信用记录的电子化存储,加快建设信用信息系统,加快推进行业间信用信息互联互通。各行业分别负责本行业信用信息的组织与发布。
  (二)地方信用信息系统建设。
  加快推进政务信用信息整合。各地区要对本地区各部门、各单位履行公共管理职能过程中产生的信用信息进行记录、完善、整合,形成统一的信用信息共享平台,为企业、个人和社会征信机构等查询政务信用信息提供便利。
  加强地区内信用信息的应用。各地区要制定政务信用信息公开目录,形成信息公开的监督机制。大力推进本地区各部门、各单位政务信用信息的交换与共享,在公共管理中加强信用信息应用,提高履职效率。
  (三)征信系统建设。
  加快征信系统建设。征信机构开展征信业务,应建立以企事业单位及其他社会组织、个人为对象的征信系统,依法采集、整理、保存、加工企事业单位及其他社会组织、个人的信用信息,并采取合理措施保障信用信息的准确性。各地区、各行业要支持征信机构建立征信系统。
  对外提供专业化征信服务。征信机构要根据市场需求,对外提供专业化的征信服务,有序推进信用服务产品创新。建立健全并严格执行内部风险防范、避免利益冲突和保障信息安全的规章制度,依法向客户提供方便、快捷、高效的征信服务,进一步扩大信用报告在银行业、证券业、保险业及政府部门行政执法等多种领域中的应用。
  (四)金融业统一征信平台建设。
  完善金融信用信息基础数据库。继续推进金融信用信息基础数据库建设,提升数据质量,完善系统功能,加强系统安全运行管理,进一步扩大信用报告的覆盖范围,提升系统对外服务水平。
  推动金融业统一征信平台建设。继续推动银行、证券、保险、外汇等金融管理部门之间信用信息系统的链接,推动金融业统一征信平台建设,推进金融监管部门信用信息的交换与共享。
  (五)推进信用信息的交换与共享。
  逐步推进政务信用信息的交换与共享。各地区、各行业要以需求为导向,在保护隐私、责任明确、数据及时准确的前提下,按照风险分散的原则,建立信用信息交换共享机制,统筹利用现有信用信息系统基础设施,依法推进各信用信息系统的互联互通和信用信息的交换共享,逐步形成覆盖全部信用主体、所有信用信息类别、全国所有区域的信用信息网络。各行业主管部门要对信用信息进行分类分级管理,确定查询权限,特殊查询需求特殊申请。
  依法推进政务信用信息系统与征信系统间的信息交换与共享。发挥市场激励机制的作用,鼓励社会征信机构加强对已公开政务信用信息和非政务信用信息的整合,建立面向不同对象的征信服务产品体系,满足社会多层次、多样化和专业化的征信服务需求。
  五、完善以奖惩制度为重点的社会信用体系运行机制
  运行机制是保障社会信用体系各系统协调运行的制度基础。其中,守信激励和失信惩戒机制直接作用于各个社会主体信用行为,是社会信用体系运行的核心机制。
  (一)构建守信激励和失信惩戒机制。
  加强对守信主体的奖励和激励。加大对守信行为的表彰和宣传力度。按规定对诚信企业和模范个人给予表彰,通过新闻媒体广泛宣传,营造守信光荣的舆论氛围。发展改革、财政、金融、环境保护、住房城乡建设、交通运输、商务、工商、税务、质检、安全监管、海关、知识产权等部门,在市场监管和公共服务过程中,要深化信用信息和信用产品的应用,对诚实守信者实行优先办理、简化程序等“绿色通道”支持激励政策。
  加强对失信主体的约束和惩戒。强化行政监管性约束和惩戒。在现有行政处罚措施的基础上,健全失信惩戒制度,建立各行业黑名单制度和市场退出机制。推动各级人民政府在市场监管和公共服务的市场准入、资质认定、行政审批、政策扶持等方面实施信用分类监管,结合监管对象的失信类别和程度,使失信者受到惩戒。逐步建立行政许可申请人信用承诺制度,并开展申请人信用审查,确保申请人在政府推荐的征信机构中有信用记录,配合征信机构开展信用信息采集工作。推动形成市场性约束和惩戒。制定信用基准性评价指标体系和评价方法,完善失信信息记录和披露制度,使失信者在市场交易中受到制约。推动形成行业性约束和惩戒。通过行业协会制定行业自律规则并监督会员遵守。对违规的失信者,按照情节轻重,对机构会员和个人会员实行警告、行业内通报批评、公开谴责等惩戒措施。推动形成社会性约束和惩戒。完善社会舆论监督机制,加强对失信行为的披露和曝光,发挥群众评议讨论、批评报道等作用,通过社会的道德谴责,形成社会震慑力,约束社会成员的失信行为。
  建立失信行为有奖举报制度。切实落实对举报人的奖励,保护举报人的合法权益。
  建立多部门、跨地区信用联合奖惩机制。通过信用信息交换共享,实现多部门、跨地区信用奖惩联动,使守信者处处受益、失信者寸步难行。
  (二)建立健全信用法律法规和标准体系。
  完善信用法律法规体系。推进信用立法工作,使信用信息征集、查询、应用、互联互通、信用信息安全和主体权益保护等有法可依。出台《征信业管理条例》相关配套制度和实施细则,建立异议处理、投诉办理和侵权责任追究制度。
  推进行业、部门和地方信用制度建设。各地区、各部门分别根据本地区、相关行业信用体系建设的需要,制定地区或行业信用建设的规章制度,明确信用信息记录主体的责任,保证信用信息的客观、真实、准确和及时更新,完善信用信息共享公开制度,推动信用信息资源的有序开发利用。
  建立信用信息分类管理制度。制定信用信息目录,明确信用信息分类,按照信用信息的属性,结合保护个人隐私和商业秘密,依法推进信用信息在采集、共享、使用、公开等环节的分类管理。加大对贩卖个人隐私和商业秘密行为的查处力度。
  加快信用信息标准体系建设。制定全国统一的信用信息采集和分类管理标准,统一信用指标目录和建设规范。
  建立统一社会信用代码制度。建立自然人、法人和其他组织统一社会信用代码制度。完善相关制度标准,推动在经济社会活动中广泛使用统一社会信用代码。
  (三)培育和规范信用服务市场。
  发展各类信用服务机构。逐步建立公共信用服务机构和社会信用服务机构互为补充、信用信息基础服务和增值服务相辅相成的多层次、全方位的信用服务组织体系。
  推进并规范信用评级行业发展。培育发展本土评级机构,增强我国评级机构的国际影响力。规范发展信用评级市场,提高信用评级行业的整体公信力。探索创新双评级、再评级制度。鼓励我国评级机构参与国际竞争和制定国际标准,加强与其他国家信用评级机构的协调和合作。
  推动信用服务产品广泛运用。拓展信用服务产品应用范围,加大信用服务产品在社会治理和市场交易中的应用。鼓励信用服务产品开发和创新,推动信用保险、信用担保、商业保理、履约担保、信用管理咨询及培训等信用服务业务发展。
  建立政务信用信息有序开放制度。明确政务信用信息的开放分类和基本目录,有序扩大政务信用信息对社会的开放,优化信用调查、信用评级和信用管理等行业的发展环境。
  完善信用服务市场监管体制。根据信用服务市场、机构业务的不同特点,依法实施分类监管,完善监管制度,明确监管职责,切实维护市场秩序。推动制定信用服务相关法律制度,建立信用服务机构准入与退出机制,实现从业资格认定的公开透明,进一步完善信用服务业务规范,促进信用服务业健康发展。
  推动信用服务机构完善法人治理。强化信用服务机构内部控制,完善约束机制,提升信用服务质量。
  加强信用服务机构自身信用建设。信用服务机构要确立行为准则,加强规范管理,提高服务质量,坚持公正性和独立性,提升公信力。鼓励各类信用服务机构设立首席信用监督官,加强自身信用管理。
  加强信用服务行业自律。推动建立信用服务行业自律组织,在组织内建立信用服务机构和从业人员基本行为准则和业务规范,强化自律约束,全面提升信用服务机构诚信水平。
  (四)保护信用信息主体权益。
  健全信用信息主体权益保护机制。充分发挥行政监管、行业自律和社会监督在信用信息主体权益保护中的作用,综合运用法律、经济和行政等手段,切实保护信用信息主体权益。加强对信用信息主体的引导教育,不断增强其维护自身合法权益的意识。
  建立自我纠错、主动自新的社会鼓励与关爱机制。以建立针对未成年人失信行为的教育机制为重点,通过对已悔过改正旧有轻微失信行为的社会成员予以适当保护,形成守信正向激励机制。
  建立信用信息侵权责任追究机制。制定信用信息异议处理、投诉办理、诉讼管理制度及操作细则。进一步加大执法力度,对信用服务机构泄露国家秘密、商业秘密和侵犯个人隐私等违法行为,依法予以严厉处罚。通过各类媒体披露各种侵害信息主体权益的行为,强化社会监督作用。
  (五)强化信用信息安全管理。
  健全信用信息安全管理体制。完善信用信息保护和网络信任体系,建立健全信用信息安全监控体系。加大信用信息安全监督检查力度,开展信用信息安全风险评估,实行信用信息安全等级保护。开展信用信息系统安全认证,加强信用信息服务系统安全管理。建立和完善信用信息安全应急处理机制。加强信用信息安全基础设施建设。
  加强信用服务机构信用信息安全内部管理。强化信用服务机构信息安全防护能力,加大安全保障、技术研发和资金投入,高起点、高标准建设信用信息安全保障系统。依法制定和实施信用信息采集、整理、加工、保存、使用等方面的规章制度。
  六、建立实施支撑体系
  (一)强化责任落实。
  各地区、各部门要统一思想,按照本规划纲要总体要求,成立规划纲要推进小组,根据职责分工和工作实际,制定具体落实方案。
  各地区、各部门要定期对本地区、相关行业社会信用体系建设情况进行总结和评估,及时发现问题并提出改进措施。
  对社会信用体系建设成效突出的地区、部门和单位,按规定予以表彰。对推进不力、失信现象多发地区、部门和单位的负责人,按规定实施行政问责。
  (二)加大政策支持。
  各级人民政府要根据社会信用体系建设需要,将应由政府负担的经费纳入财政预算予以保障。加大对信用基础设施建设、重点领域创新示范工程等方面的资金支持。
  鼓励各地区、各部门结合规划纲要部署和自身工作实际,在社会信用体系建设创新示范领域先行先试,并在政府投资、融资安排等方面给予支持。
  (三)实施专项工程。
  政务信息公开工程。深入贯彻实施《中华人民共和国政府信息公开条例》,按照主动公开、依申请公开进行分类管理,切实加大政务信息公开力度,树立公开、透明的政府形象。
  农村信用体系建设工程。为农户、农场、农民合作社、休闲农业和农产品生产、加工企业等农村社会成员建立信用档案,夯实农村信用体系建设的基础。开展信用户、信用村、信用乡(镇)创建活动,深入推进青年信用示范户工作,发挥典型示范作用,使农民在参与中受到教育,得到实惠,在实践中提高信用意识。推进农产品生产、加工、流通企业和休闲农业等涉农企业信用建设。建立健全农民信用联保制度,推进和发展农业保险,完善农村信用担保体系。
  小微企业信用体系建设工程。建立健全适合小微企业特点的信用记录和评价体系,完善小微企业信用信息查询、共享服务网络及区域性小微企业信用记录。引导各类信用服务机构为小微企业提供信用服务,创新小微企业集合信用服务方式,鼓励开展形式多样的小微企业诚信宣传和培训活动,为小微企业便利融资和健康发展营造良好的信用环境。
  (四)推动创新示范。
  地方信用建设综合示范。示范地区率先对本地区各部门、各单位的信用信息进行整合,形成统一的信用信息共享平台,依法向社会有序开放。示范地区各部门在开展经济社会管理和提供公共服务过程中,强化使用信用信息和信用产品,并作为政府管理和服务的必备要件。建立健全社会信用奖惩联动机制,使守信者得到激励和奖励,失信者受到制约和惩戒。对违法违规等典型失信行为予以公开,对严重失信行为加大打击力度。探索建立地方政府信用评价标准和方法,在发行地方政府债券等符合法律法规规定的信用融资活动中试行开展地方政府综合信用评价。
  区域信用建设合作示范。探索建立区域信用联动机制,开展区域信用体系建设创新示范,推进信用信息交换共享,实现跨地区信用奖惩联动,优化区域信用环境。
  重点领域和行业信用信息应用示范。在食品药品安全、环境保护、安全生产、产品质量、工程建设、电子商务、证券期货、融资担保、政府采购、招标投标等领域,试点推行信用报告制度。
  (五)健全组织保障。
  完善组织协调机制。完善社会信用体系建设部际联席会议制度,充分发挥其统筹协调作用,加强对各地区、各部门社会信用体系建设工作的指导、督促和检查。健全组织机构,各地区、各部门要设立专门机构负责推动社会信用体系建设。成立全国性信用协会,加强行业自律,充分发挥各类社会组织在推进社会信用体系建设中的作用。
  建立地方政府推进机制。地方各级人民政府要将社会信用体系建设纳入重要工作日程,推进政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设,加强督查,强化考核,把社会信用体系建设工作作为目标责任考核和政绩考核的重要内容。
  建立工作通报和协调制度。社会信用体系建设部际联席会议定期召开工作协调会议,通报工作进展情况,及时研究解决社会信用体系建设中的重大问题。



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